Ka Band Satellite Internet – Muhammed Halil Şahiner / Martin Telekom AŞ


Nowadays, rising generation communication and need demands of all consumers from individual users to corporate companies increase the need of wideband internet usage. After the developing of communication infrastructure, these needs are tried to satisfy by wireless communication organs like Fiber Optic, 3G/4G and Wi-Fi. Although these kinds of communication infrastructures are in many places, the satellite communication is an alternative come to mind in the places that don’t have enough substructure or need in high quantity of investment for setup cost.


Increase in wideband communication needs depending on developing technology and high costs and expensive equipment in Ku and C band substructures promote people to use Ka band satellite systems. Under favour of Ka Band satellite technology, wideband communication services are able to offer high speed and low equipment.  The same frequencies could service to users from satellite footprint. By this means, it happened possible to reach higher satellite capacities and as a consequence of this, Ka band internet access prices became to be able to compete with terrestrial wideband services. Also, instead of involving a wide area as in Ku and C band satellites, as a result of smaller coverage area and high frequency (26,5-40 GHz)  Ka band end user antennas could be small sizes.


Ka band services are using especially in geopraphies that has inadequate communicate substructure such as Middle East, Africa and South Asia. First of all, it is possible to organize areas of usage,


  • Wideband internet services
  • VoIP, RoIP
  • E-education
  • Broadcast services
  • Institutional applications
  • Mining and Petroleum Institute
  • Tele-Health Services


In this article, we’ll dwell on the embedded communication solutions that help to increase usage prevalence and integrated work with Ka band solutions.


Embedded Communication Solutions Integrated with Ka Band Satellite Internet


To request to send HD live broadcast in publishing area, to provide economic IP communication in the places unfavorable substructure, GSM coverage zone in the places doesn’t have any GSM coverage zone make Ka band usage service in wide area.


Modeo Encoder


Nowadays, HD video usage became pretty popular. For HD video broadcast by Ku band satellites, more satellite capacity and big and expensive equipment usage are needed. To transfer these HD scenes by way of Ka band satellites, the devices able to fit the bill are needed. For HD video broadcast with sharing internet services proffered by Ka band satellite operators, dynamic Encoder that different from standard ones and suitable to work for band wide is must. Our group firm CTECH saw this need and developed home production Modeo Encoder. 2 key features that Modeo Encoder has are,


  1. Adoptable Bitrate Algorithm
  2. Bonding Algorithm


The content is coded with more than one bit rates and the video stream is made over the Internet by ‘Adoptable Bitrate Algorithm’ developed for Ka band Internet services.  Modeo Encoder decides the most suitable video bit rate and perceives the upload rate and satellite delay. Through, it became possible to video transmission suitable for changing satellite band wide and delay in satellite. In case of more than one upload capacity needed to send HD video content, it is possible to compound Modeo Encoder and Bonding Algorithm of different satellite modems’ capacities and reach higher speeds.




Our group firm ClickNET that bring Ka band Internet services into use in many countries based on the agreement with global satellite operators serves VoIP service with Ka band Internet access. Without needed any extra investment with IP phones, making telephone conversations, over IP protocol are possible. By this means, making cheap and free- location telephone conversations over Ka Band Satellite Internet Service is possible.


The attention should be paid in some points of VoIP applications over internet. One of them is current band wideness. Ka band internet services meet the different band widths needs for VoIP.  Second point is delay period.  Recommended delay period by ITU is 400 milliseconds. This time is less than requisite time of 500 milliseconds for transmission of satellite signal between earth station and satellite but there is no problem in this implementation. Another topic is package losses. The operating logic of VoIP is delicate internet connectivity. There are lots of factors in satellite communication that affect satellite signal. That’s why, BER value (Bit Error Rate) need to be pretty low, initially. For warrant VoIP traffic transmission, QoS and prioritization should be done. There are various developed coding algorithms and the most common one is G.729 Codec. 8 kbps capacity is needed for G.729 coding. Other current standard is G.723 and for this, 5.3 kbps is needed.




Another service we offer as ClickNET with Ka Band Satellite Services is RoIP (Radio Over IP) solution. Due to this solution, analogue transceiver systems (VHF, UHF) could be work with internet networks. At the present time, the availability to usage of commonly used analogue transceiver systems over Ka Band Satellite Systems offers economic advantages to answer the communication needs. On the system coattails, an integrated solution with other systems like VoIP etc. over IP is provided.


The studies about making other communication systems able to work over Ka Band Satellite Systems are done and tests are ended up successfully. We could count the systems that provide GSM communication carry over IP like FemtoCell and GoIP between them.


Integrated solutions are provided by Ka Band Satellite Systems enrich the current communication technologies. Various more quality and economic solutions are provided by this technologic wealth will continue to increase quality of life of humanity.

The Digital Broadcasting Transition Period of Terrestrial TV and Radio



Radio and TV channels are categorized as terrestrial, cable, satellite and Internet publications according to their transmission medium. In our country, satellite and cable publications are licensed by Radio and Television Supreme Council Corporation. Terrestrial publications broadcast as part of Radio and Television codes. Terrestrial publication establishments’ number is below by July.


Table 1: Applicant Institutions to Terrestrial Analog TV Publication


3984 numbered Radio and Television Institutions and Publications code entered in force in 1994 and sentenced to make frequency plans and then license publication institutions.


In an attempt to assign channel/frequency for terrestrial broadcast to Supreme Broadcast broadcasting organizations, we went to tender for 3 times in 1997, 2001 and 2013 but licensing operations were not completed for a variety of reasons. Because of this, sorting tender of licensing terrestrial radio and television broadcast weren’t put in, code 3984’s ad interim 6st clause continues.


Within the rule of today’s technology and legal acquis AB, as a result of regulations of AB Audiovisual Media Services Instruction that entered in a force in 2007 December by broadcasting in AB Gazette, 6112 numbered code about Radio and Televisions’ Establishment and Broadcast Services entered in a force in March 3, 2011.


In 2006, Regional Radio Communication Conference (RRC-06) came together within International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Cenevre.


Table 2: The allocations are made for Turkey in RRC-06 Conference


Figure 1: Turkey Frequency Areas Determined in RRC-06 Conference


  • TV channel and radio frequency planning will be made by Radio and Television Supreme Board, national, regional and local territorial broadcasts’ numbers and types and multiplex numbers will determine for numerical broadcasts.
  • 6112 numbered code’s release date is March 3, 2011. From this date, within 2 years latest, numerical television multiplex capacity sorting tender will put in.
  • At the end of this 2 years, analog terrestrial television broadcasts will be finished countrywide and analog terrestrial television broadcasts will be stopped.


In this context, on the date of April 16-18, 2013, National Terrestrial Numerical TV Broadcast License Sorting Tender; on the date of May 2-3, 2013, Regional Terrestrial Numerical TV Broadcast License Sorting Tender; on the date of Jun 24-28, 2013 and July 01-02, 2013, Local (T3) Terrestrial Numerical TV Broadcast License Sorting Tender were performed and tender results were published in RTUK Internet website. Aforesaid tenders were confirmed by Supreme Board.



But, national tenders’ executive was stopped in the direction of court decisions about aforesaid tenders and then were cancelled.


Turkey’s terrestrial numerical broadcast standard was determined as DVB-T2 and MPEG-4 that is the last technology in numerical publishing and accordingly, Terrestrial Numerical Television (DVB-T2) Frequency Plan was prepared. Later, having regards to developments of compression technique in the world, instead of current MPEG-4, new technology HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding – H.265) compression technique was defined.


For our customs aren’t aggrieved, devices’ necessary specifications were defined and by name of TS 13538 “Television Receivers – General Rules for Second Generation Numerical Terrestrial Broadcast System (DVB-T2)” was accepted and published by TSE (Turkish Standards Institution).


As a result, in our country, terrestrial numerical TV broadcast is not used yet. Cancelled sorting tenders make this process be late. Regulations and specifications’ editing works are continued and these works should be completed as soon as possible and sorting tenders need to be done.



Muhsin  KILIÇ                                  Erdem ÇAKMAK

Head of Departmant                          Expert of Supreme Board


Video over IP technologies ease establishments to have video portal.


For this, requisite equipment is a server and a video portal software loaded on this server. For distribution in local network, a network switch that has outlets numbers of watcher is used.



The videos about software and institution is watched by way of this server and institutional videos are watched by way of local network in institution on PC – Laptop – Ipad – Smart Phone and TV connected SetTopBox. They are used in lessons, meetings and conferences with big-screen TV receivers that formed in mutual places.


With the same system, it is also able to used for fun like watching films, YouTube, Vimeo, media player in the places like public housings, schools, campuses, institutions etc. The films will be watched are able to loaded via DVD – VCD – Blue Ray, the sell sheet are able to seem and radio channels and TV broadcasts are able to watched.





It is possible to watch thousands of films and video channels with the capacity of server hard disc. For using this system in wide area networks (WAN) it is needed to buy a C.D.N (Content Delivery Network) service (annual or monthly payment) with V.O.D server + SetTopBox equipment and software.




Institutional or film video system that downloaded to server is separated into groups via V.O.D system’s management panel and specifies which types of videos will be watched.


It is possible to manage a lot more functions with interface of admin panel that works with V.O.D software.

Communication – Privacy and Intelligence


Assistant Professor Doctor Serkan AYDIN


Communication privacy was violated and intelligence roams around. These situations caused chaos and this oppresses the world.  Although, the expression of “Attention! The enemy listens.” sounds strange at first sight, the essence of the matter, when telecommunication access is done, the information should be transferred of set purpose of its privacy. This decision can be associated with country’s lasting for a state.


If the people who will provide the communication security of the government agencies aren’t investigated, it could cause too big security flaw.


In wired communication, main backbones are made real with fiber-optic cables. Important data flows in fiber-optic cable. The biggest weakness of fiber communication occurs because of it has too much information. The light in fiber-cables can transfer and copy to another fiber hair by so basic and inactive operation. The same information can be increased after this operation that is done by optic splitters. The next operation is saving the information in the same speed and creating the original information by processing the information packs. Ciphered information works for intelligence officer. Ciphering process serves for the real-time communication.


Storing the data in the satellite communications can be carried out without any excavation or termination. Now even PC-based receivers with the mac address of the person who downloaded the data from the satellite to the program will communicate over the Internet. How about if you own a site that can be viewed when you surf the Internet. The same situation also applies in GSM and Wi-Fi wireless communication environment is realized.


The law came into force as part of the privacy and freedom of communication. Internet service provider, many can easily control the content of the information they provide. IP-based services can be estimated that the needs of users in these systems. Simple and complex data mining processes can be applied at the site of entry making them appropriate ads.


This process can’t be made in the satellite TV broadcasting. But this may be different in the Internet support the receiver. It is clear that users who allow the purchase advertisement will pay less than other users.


The severity of contact with the work carried out in the state privacy is important. In this context, privacy and freedom of communication with the world and in Turkey, restructuring must take place. As soon as the cold war, must disappear the evidence and peaceful future work should be done.

Transceiver Detector Networks


Detectors determine physical arguments related to real world, convert them to workable forms and transfer them to numerical environment. Thus, they contact between physical world and numerical world. Detectors are integrated to numerous devices, machines and places in daily life, create an immense execution area and provide social benefit. Under favor of detectors, substructure faults could be avoided like quake, flood, fire etc. Natural resources could be protected. Security could be increased and new applications like smart house technologies could be developed.


After electronic, communication and micro electromechanic systems were developed, transceiver detector networks’ execution areas in daily life become widespread. For example, developments in semiconducting technology increase speed and capacity of processor and make transceiver’s sizes smaller.  As the result of miniaturization technologies apply, small size and cheap detectors, actuators and control units could be made real. In addition to these, embedded systems were developed and due to detectors, numerous execution areas are opened in our daily life.


By means of transceiver detector networks, environmental pollution and flood in a big geographical area could be viewed and modeled, structural data on bridges (material fatigue, corrosion etc.) could be taken, usage of mineral water, agricultural manure and dose of pesticides could be controlled. For some examples of transceiver detector networks,


  • Transportation, logistics and industrial applications,
  • To control of crop in agriculture, enriching and disinfestation and to view animals,
  • To view conditions of environment,
  • To view terrain and structuring in city centers,
  • Amusement and show applications,
  • Security and chase system applications,
  • Healthy applications (following medications and health of patient),
  • Smart networks and energy control system’s viewing,
  • Smart house applications


Detection is a technique that using for collect information about a physical object or process (to watch the change in temperature or pressure). The executer object of detection operation is the detector. Our eyes to get the optical data, our ears to get acoustic data like voice and our nose to smell are the examples of natural detector. Our eyes, ears and noses in our body are remote detectors. Because they get necessary information without touching objects.


If we look from the technical perspective, the detector is the device turns the parameters and happenings in physical earth to signals that are able to measured and analyzed signals. Many transceiver detector networks use detectors and actuators for to be able to directly control the physical environment. Actuators might be a valve that controls the water flow, an engine that is able to open and close a door or a window or a pump that is able to inject fuel to a machine.


The Construction of Transceiver Detector Networks


The collected data in transceiver networks is transferred to centralized procedure on transceiver network. In that situation, transceiver detector processes the signal, collects the data and communicates. Transceiver detector networks usually relay information from the hard-to-get-to regions.


In case of more than one detector observe a large physical region, a big transceiver detector network is created. The detectors are able to communicate with each other and a defined central station. The figures below shows network topology that observes two different geometrical areas and transfers observation data to main station.




As it seems in the picture, transceiver networks vary according to their constructions and communication talents. The detectors with simple construction can observe only one physical phenomenon and more talented constructions can compound more than one detection techniques (acoustics, optics, magnetics). Also, different construction detectors can communicate in different delay time data transmission speed by using ultrasonic, infrared or radio frequency signals.


From the other side, while basic detectors collect data that dependent to followed environment, the detectors has bigger processor power and energy and storage talent process the data and centralize. These kinds of devices add abilities like forming communication backbone to transceiver detector networks.


 TUYAD: Association of Satellite Electronic Communication Business People is provides system and service in satellite and communication area since 2001 in Turkey.


Our association contributes to international quality standards which manufacturing and import of Tv products in Turkey.


We have international brands in our members. Our total export figures around $ 600 million in 2011.


We can export satellite receivers to Europe with zero tax rate for which has Atr documents because of the European Customs Union agreements.


Our country has 14 million pcs satellite receivers manufacturing capacity in year. Our professional R&D and software engineers working on the best product with the best price.


Our new market target North African countries. Most countries that we export in 2011;  Iraq, Nigeria, Tunisia, India, Turkmenistan, Georgia and Romania.


We have around 10.000 pcs worker for satellite receiver and dish manufacturing in our country. We have 50.000 person worker if we add sellers and service firms.


We are working on Terrestrial Tv, IP Tv, Cable Tv to broadcast in HD with our engineers followed by the highest level of technology.



Our target is increasing our market share and making more services with our products of superior quality.


We are proud of working and advising with all firms which want to work with our country about IP, Satellite and Cable Tv. For more information please visit our website www.tuyad.org





Board of Directors




First TV broadcasting in 1952 by Technical University of Istanbul, in VHF-I. TRT begun with TV broadcasting in 1968. The first private TV broadcasting in 1989. 550+ TV channels today we have.




75+ million population. 33% of the population below 15 years. 15 million housholds. 19 million TV consumption sites. TV viewing percentage of the population is 94%. 4.5 hours TV consumption per day.


553 TV and 1120 Radio channels in total area broadcasting in Turkey. 247 TV and 1057 Radio channels Terrestrial, 205 TV and 63 Radio channels over Satellita, 101 TV channels via Cable TV.


TV viewing distribution


– 67.3%    “via satellite dish”

– 29.9%    “via terrestrial antenna”

– 8.9%      “via cable”

– 1.6%      “via digital platforms”


DTH is being preferred due to the higher quantity of alternatives, quality, economy reasons.





In 2011 total Sat Receiver sales figüre in Turkey is 3.816.000.

3.534.000 pcs has been manufactured in Turkey, 282.000 pcs has been imported.





New digital broadcasting technologies will create new demands by TV housholds for various kinds of set-top-boxes in the future.



-Digital Terrestrial ( DVB-T2)



-Cable TV



Tüketicinin Korunması ve Piyasa Gözetimi Genel Müdürlüğü



 “Şifresiz, Sınırsız, Kesintisiz” Vaadiyle Yayın Yapan IP TV’ler Hakkında Basın Açıklaması

Dijital televizyon platformları tarafından belirli bir ücret karşılığında sunulan lig maçları, sinema, belgesel, haber kanalları gibi farklı üyeliklerin IP TV adı altında, düşük ücretlerle, “şifresiz, sınırsız, kesintisiz” sunulacağını vaat eden firmalar, Reklam Kurulu tarafından mercek altına alındı.

Reklam Kurulunca,  RTÜK’ten yayın lisansı, platform işletme izni, ilgili platformlardan yayın izni olmadan yapılan sözleşmesiz yayınların yasal olmadığı gerekçesiyle, bu doğrultuda tanıtım yapan firmalar hakkında inceleme başlatılmıştır.


Söz konusu platformların yasal olmayan yollarla şifresiz biçimde izlenilmesi, şifreli kanalların abone dışında kullanılması, izinsiz toplu gösterim sağlanması ve bundan haksız kazanç elde edilmesi durumu sektörde haksız rekabete yol açmaktadır.

Diğer taraftan, tüketicilere vaat edilen kanalların açılmadığı, özellikle maç yayınlarının verilmediği, sürekli donma sorunu yaşandığı, bağlantı dahi kurulamadığı, dolayısıyla birçok tüketicinin yıllık ücret ödeyerek söz konusu hizmetten faydalanamadığı gibi sebeplerle birçok tüketicinin mağdur edildiği görülmektedir.

Bu doğrultuda, tüketicilere internet üzerinden ulusal platformların ve kanallarının yayınlarını mevzuata aykırı olarak pazarlayan ve usulsüz abonelik tesis eden bir firma hakkında Reklam Kurulu’nun 277. sayılı ve 09.10.2018 tarihli toplantısında 69.086.-TL idari para ve durdurma cezaları verilmesine karar verilmiştir.

“Şifresiz, Sınırsız, Kesintisiz” vaadiyle yayın yapan IP TV’lerden yayınları izinsiz ileten, usulüne uygun olmadan abonelik yapan ve bunun reklamını yapanlar hakkında Reklam Kurulu inceleme görevini yürütmeye devam edecektir.

Kamuoyuna saygıyla duyurulur.



2018 yılı “Ekonomik sorunların yoğun olduğu ve siyaset ekonomisinin ülkemizi ötekileştirme yolunda olumsuzluklar yaşattığı” bir yıl oldu.


Ama ülkemiz yine tüm sorunların üstesinden milletimizin yüksek değerleri ile geldi. Tüm dünyanın gözü gerek coğrafi gerekse stratejik öneme sahip ülkemizin yükselen değerlerinde. Bu değere sahip olma açısından bazen ülkemizi zayıf düşürmeye çalışanlar olmaktadır ve emellerine asla ulaşamayacak, millet-devlet kenetlenmesi karşısında mutlaka hezimete uğrayacaklardır.


2019 yılında da milletçe birbirimize kenetleneceğiz. Ülkemiz, 2019 yılında emin adımlarla yoluna devam edecektir. Bunun için hiçbir mazeret üretmeyeceğiz ve her daim bir çıkış yolu bulacağız.


Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve kardeşliğimizi kimse bozamayacak. Demokrasiyi, Atatürk İlke ve İnkılaplarını ülkemiz istikrarı, hukuk düzenimiz ve neslimizin güvenliği için gözümüzün ışığı gibi koruyacağız.


Siyasi parti temsilcilerinin inadına biz birimize daha çok sarılacağız. Toplumsal ayrışmayı toplumsal dayanışmaya dönüştürüp daha çok büyüyecek ve el birliği ile toplumsal huzuru sağlayacağız.

Huzurumuzu, kardeşliğimizi kimse bozamayacak.


Bu ülkenin idamesi için çok bedel ödendi, aziz şehitlerimizi ve gazilerimizi asla unutmayacak ve onların emanetine daima sahip çıkacağız.


Birlik ve beraberliğimiz devam ettikçe, inanıyoruz ki ülkemizin hukukuna, yasa ve yasama organlarına güven artacak ve kardeşliğimiz ile demokrasimize yönelebilecek her türlü tehdit bertaraf olmaya mahkûm olacaktır.


2019, sektörümüz adına yeni pazarların oluştuğu yıl olacak. Karasal yayın, İnternet Televizyonu ve Uydu internet pazarı genişleyerek büyüyecektir.


Ülkemiz için yeni yıl kalkınma yılı olacak buna canı gönülden inanın ve inanalım kalkınma ancak bu şekilde olacaktır.


2019 yılını üreterek, çalışarak en iyi şekilde değerlendirelim. Yapılacak yerel yönetim seçimi ülkemiz adına hayırlara vesile olsun, güzellikler olsun, ülkemiz ve demokrasimiz çok daha güçlü olsun.


Ülkemizi tehdit eden tüm unsurların ve tehditlerin yok olduğu bir yıl diliyoruz. Çalışmalarımız en yaygın şekilde devam ederken ülkemizin güvenliğini sağlamak için elimizden gelen gayreti de göstereceğiz.


2019’da sosyal adaletin, düşünce ve her türlü özgürlüğün bol olduğu bir yıl olsun. Milletimizin refah ve ekonomik seviyesi yükselsin ve insanımız mutlu olsun.


Türkiye’de, demokrasi, insan hakları ve kalkınma, Atatürk’ün yolunda ve çabalarının devamında yeniden taçlandırılarak devam etsin.


Yüce Türk milletinin ve Türkiye’nin ufku geniş ve önü açık, yarınları umut dolu, geleceği aydınlıktır. Umudunuz daim olsun. İnanıyorum ki, önümüzdeki yıl, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin yıldızı daha da parlayacak; bütün dünya ülkemizin, milletimizin başarılarını konuşacaktır.


En son dönemlerin en büyük toplumsal sorunları, cinsel istismarın ve kadına şiddetin son bulduğu, hayvan haklarının insan hakları kadar değerli olduğu, bölücülüğün son bulduğu ve dinsel ayrımcılık başta olmak üzere tüm ayrımcılıkların son bulduğu bir yıl olsun.


Bu umutlarla yeni yılınızı kutluyor; 2019 yılının ülkemiz, milletimiz ve bütün insanlık için barış, huzur ve kardeşlik içinde geçmesini temenni ediyorum.

Herkesi sevgiyle selamlıyorum. Var olsun yüce Türk milleti.